48 Volt E Bike Controller Wiring Diagram


A controller for an electric bicycle is one of its key components. It acts as the brain of your bike‘s motor and other electronic components, with five wires colored Red, Yellow, Blue, Green, and Black; its thick red wire serves as the primary voltage while the thin red wire acts as the switch wire.

Throttle Handle

A 48V E-bike controller is used to regulate the start, operation, advance/retreat speed, and stop of an electric bike motor. It serves as the brain of this form of transportation. A single-chip microcomputer serves as the controller’s brain; equipped with memory storage space, a decoder for signal language conversion, a sawtooth generator pulse width modulation function circuit driving circuit, and input/output ports, it is an essential component in every electric bike.

A good throttle will include a battery voltage indicator to inform riders how much charge remains in their batteries, as well as an on/off key switch that allows riders to control it on and off at will. This feature is essential, as it prevents bikes from starting if the batteries haven’t been charged sufficiently.

Whenever running two different-sized batteries in parallel, it’s always wise to do so as this allows the smaller one not to drain as rapidly. Just be sure that the voltage on your controller doesn’t go beyond its maximum rating value for a larger battery; otherwise, it could damage it as well as possibly destroy a larger one.

An essential feature of any good throttle is its capacity to handle high currents. This feature is necessary because higher torque motors often need more wind than their lower torque counterparts. Furthermore, an ideal throttle should operate smoothly across a broad range of speeds.

There are various kinds of throttles on the market to suit every electric bike owner’s needs, and finding the one appropriate is critical to successful ownership. Most throttles have specific voltage ratings; when purchasing one, make sure it fits. In addition, make sure the cable reaches all parts of the motor without obstruction.

The red color wire serves as the switchwire. When connected to a controller, it activates and, when detached, deactivates its control system. You can click this red wire directly on a throttle switch or handlebar switch so it can control whether throttle access can be turned on/off. This feature can be convenient for people using their electric bikes on public streets.

Brake Lever

This controller features a built-in brake lever for quickly shutting off the motor. Additionally, it can connect to mechanical brakes using relays like RLY-4860 for more effective braking performance.


Customizable limits for motor current and battery current are configurable by users, as is battery protection: current cutback, warning, and shutoff at configurable high and low battery voltage levels.

* Regenerative Braking: Brake Switch Regen, Release Throttle Regen, and Variable Regen with an Analog Signal Range between 0-5V are supported as Regenerative Breaking modes. High Pedal Protection is another helpful feature; should the controller detect a high throttle pedal position on power up, it won’t function and won’t activate any functions associated with that cylinder.

* Aluminum case for maximum heat dissipation. * Rugged high current terminals and aviation connectors. * Programmable via standard PC/Laptop computer.

3 Position Switch

A controller serves as the central brain of an electric bike. It takes all input from various electric components – throttle, speed sensor, display screen, battery, and motor – and determines what signals should be sent back out to each of these parts; additionally, it serves various protection functions.

For example, this device contains a current limiter that prevents the motor from drawing too much power and overheating, as well as monitoring battery voltage to stop system operation if the battery drops below an acceptable threshold – thus protecting against over-discharge of its battery pack.

Although a 36v motor can run on a 48v controller, its performance will be slower due to more voltage and wattage being required to reach full power. On the plus side, larger motors provide a more extended range.

To successfully connect a three-position switch to a 48v controller, it’s essential that you first identify which wire serves as the standard wire – typically, it will be connected to either copper or black screw terminals and should be marked accordingly before being disconnected from their connections. Once identified, locate a similar terminal on both switches and join the two together using their standard wire.

Connect the white neutral wire and ground wire, both located in the first switch box. Secure them together using wire nuts before finding the shortest ground wire from both tubes and connecting it to its green screw terminal in both.

A 48-volt controller is typically designed for 13 LiPo cells or 24 lead-acid cells, meaning its cutoff voltage will naturally fall somewhere around 40 volts. A 36-volt controller may offer a lower cutoff voltage due to it only supporting fewer cells.


Motors are at the core of an electric bike and provide smooth power assist as you pedal. To make sure it works optimally, make sure the controller matches it ideally; to do this, look for one with around the same voltage rating as your battery and one capable of managing Amps (Watts) of current as drawn by your motor.

A controller serves as the heart and brain of an electric bike, managing the start, operation, advance/retreat/speed, and stop of its motor as well as electronic devices. Therefore, when selecting an appropriate controller, be sure to choose one with multiple protection features, including stalled/overvoltage protection/undervoltage protection/high current protection, etc.

Your E-Bike Controller consists of several wires that connect it to your Motor and other parts of your EV bike. Of the most importance are green, blue, and yellow cables – these serve as motor hall sensor wires. Red and Black serve as switch and anti-theft wires, respectively; any other color wires should be disregarded temporarily.

To connect the hall sensors to your controller, click the motor Green wire to the Green wire on the controller and the motor Blue to Blue on the controller. Finally, the thick Red wire (Brake Switch) must be connected in whatever polarity is appropriate.

Another key feature of this controller is its configurable limits for motor current and configurable high/low battery voltage protection that warns and stops when high/low battery levels occur – helping prevent over-discharge while prolonging battery life. Furthermore, it includes a standard 3-wire variable speed hall-effect twist throttle compatible with most e-bikes that use this type of controller.